New superomniphobic glass soars high on butterfly wings using machine learning A battery with a half-glued flexible solar cell, and batteries wrapped with the blue solar cells. Image credit: Knut Karlsen. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Knut Karlsen, a blogger from Norway, hit upon this idea of a solar battery (a rechargeable battery with integrated solar cells) in hopes of making battery charging more convenient. He was able to work with some flexible solar cells given to him by the Institute for Energy Technology (IFE) in Norway. He then glued the 1.8V solar cells around some 1.5V NiMH rechargeable batteries. Using a conductive silver pen and some flat wires from a broken canon lens, he connected the solar cells and batteries.Karlsen calls his DIY prototype “SunCat” batteries. As he explains, “The batteries should just bask in the sun like a cat and left for a while, in a sunny window, they would slowly recharge.” However, according to his blog post, the weather wasn’t sunny enough to test the batteries yet. He explains that the current set-up is not ideal, but a second version might include capacitors to charge the batteries more efficiently and electronics to show when the batteries are fully charged.Via: blog.bareknut.no Citation: Battery Wrapped in Solar Cells Recharges in the Sun (2009, March 2) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2009-03-battery-solar-cells-recharges-sun.html (PhysOrg.com) — Although you can buy solar charging devices for rechargeable batteries, it would be even more convenient if batteries had built-in solar cells. Sitting in sunlight, the battery could then recharge itself. Explore further
This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Birds migrate from one location to another because the food they eat is typically seasonal—they cannot find insects, for example, in the wintry north, so they fly south to where it is warmer. That is what white storks have done for as long as humans have been taking records—flying south from Europe to Africa. But now it seems, some of the changes humans have made to the environment appear to be causing the birds to rethink their migration patterns.Migration for birds has a trade off—the farther they fly the more likely they are to die during the trip, either from the elements, or predators. For that reason, scientists have found, if migrating bird species find a way to shorten their migration route, they will take it. In this new study, the researchers affixed GPS bands to 70 wild juvenile storks born in Germany, Spain, Uzbekistan, Poland, Greece, Russia and Armenia and then tracked them as they migrated. Doing so allowed the researchers to compare current migration patterns to those that were noted in the past by prior researchers. Why are storks changing their migratory patterns? New project launched Journal information: Science Advances © 2016 Phys.org (A) Summed activity (ODBA) of the first 5 months of a juvenile’s life as a function of total distance flown during the same time. The solid gray line represents the third-order polynomial regression. The best-fitting regression is provided by the equation Y = 387.2 + 1.344 × 10−11 X3. (B) Average activity (ODBA) of a migration day in relation to average activity of a stopover day. Color represents the different populations. Gray dashed line is a reference line. Credit: Flack et al. Sci. Adv. 2016; 2: e1500931 Explore further Storks in Spain. Credit: Julio Blas (A) Migration paths of 62 individuals tracked with GPS/GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) (eight individuals died before migrating).Maps depicted are OpenStreetMap images accessed through the R package OpenStreetMap. (B) Departure date of the studied populations. Color scale indicates departure dates (white indicating no departure). (C) Departure date as a function of maximum distance reached (each color represents one population). Dots in the light gray–shaded area represent individuals that left their natal grounds but survived for less than 150 days. SW, southwest. Credit: Flack et al. Sci. Adv. 2016; 2: e1500931 (Phys.org)—An international team of researchers has found that many groups of white storks have begun to modify their migration patterns to take advantage of human made food sources, such as garbage dumps. In their paper published in the journal Science Advances, the team describes the study they undertook of young white storks that were born in eight different countries, their migration routes and any changes they noted from previous studies. In studying the data, the researchers found that while storks from Greece, Poland and Russia followed their traditional routes, those from Germany, Spain, and Tunisia did not fly as far as before, stopping short of the Sahara; storks from Armenia did not fly very far, and storks from Uzbekistan did not migrate at all, instead choosing to feed on local fish farms. Those that stopped short of the Sahara appeared to do so because there was ample food in garbage dumps in Morocco.The researchers note that the shorter migration paths is likely leading to higher survival rates, but it is still unclear what other impact it will have—migrating birds such as storks tend to eat a lot of insects, fish, frogs and other animals. It is not known how prior migration areas will be impacted by the absence of the migrating birds. Citation: White storks found to be altering migration patterns due to human environmental changes (2016, January 25) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2016-01-white-storks-migration-patterns-due.html More information: A. Flack et al. Costs of migratory decisions: A comparison across eight white stork populations, Science Advances (2016). DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1500931AbstractAnnual migratory movements can range from a few tens to thousands of kilometers, creating unique energetic requirements for each specific species and journey. Even within the same species, migration costs can vary largely because of flexible, opportunistic life history strategies. We uncover the large extent of variation in the lifetime migratory decisions of young white storks originating from eight populations. Not only did juvenile storks differ in their geographically distinct wintering locations, their diverse migration patterns also affected the amount of energy individuals invested for locomotion during the first months of their life. Overwintering in areas with higher human population reduced the stork’s overall energy expenditure because of shorter daily foraging trips, closer wintering grounds, or a complete suppression of migration. Because migrants can change ecological processes in several distinct communities simultaneously, understanding their life history decisions helps not only to protect migratory species but also to conserve stable ecosystems.
© 2016 Phys.org Journal information: Physical Review Letters To the eye, when metal is abused, it either bends or dents, which typically seem to be two aspects of the same end result—but at the atomic level, metals behave quite differently when force is applied. Two main categories of change have been identified—twinning, where the atoms that make up a crystal shift in their position relative to one another, and slip, where crystal planes slide along one another causing bonds between atoms to be broken and reestablished with other atoms. Over the years, various research efforts have led to general findings that some metals twin, and some slip, and rarely do they vary from expectations. But now, research by the team in China is contesting that view, suggesting that a material such as aluminum, which has traditionally been classified as one that exhibits slipping when stressed, can also exhibit twinning—when stressed in different ways. This finding suggests that expectations of other metals may be in error as well, which means the whole idea of categorizing metals in such ways may have to be rethought.In their experiments, the researchers bent a bar made of aluminum until it formed a T shape. To explain what occurred in the metal as it was exposed to the large forces that caused such bending, the researchers built a computer model that sought to show what happened at the atomic level. The model wound up showing, via animated “movies” that the metal underwent both twinning and slipping, which contradicted what should have occurred. To test their model, the researchers looked at the bent metal under an electron microscope, which revealed the true nature of the metal—it did indeed both twin and slip. Their research results suggest other metals will have to be tested and new ways of categorizing the ways that metals react to force will have to be found. Explore further , arXiv More information: F. Zhao et al. Macrodeformation Twins in Single-Crystal Aluminum, Physical Review Letters (2016). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.075501 . On Arxiv: http://arxiv.org/abs/1510.04404v1ABSTRACTDeformation twinning in pure aluminum has been considered to be a unique property of nanostructured aluminum. A lingering mystery is whether deformation twinning occurs in coarse-grained or single-crystal aluminum at scales beyond nanotwins. Here, we present the first experimental demonstration of macrodeformation twins in single-crystal aluminum formed under an ultrahigh strain rate (∼106 s−1) and large shear strain (200%) via dynamic equal channel angular pressing. Large-scale molecular dynamics simulations suggest that the frustration of subsonic dislocation motion leads to transonic deformation twinning. Deformation twinning is rooted in the rate dependences of dislocation motion and twinning, which are coupled, complementary processes during severe plastic deformation under ultrahigh strain rates. Strength in shrinking: Understanding why a material’s behavior changes as it gets smaller (Phys.org)—A team of researchers from multiple institutions in China has cast doubts on the simple approach that has until now been taken regarding twinning and slip as metals deform. In their paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters, the team outlines experiments they conducted with aluminum, explain their results and suggest that new ways of categorizing the ways metal responds to stress must be defined. Citation: Experiments show that notions of twinning and slip in metals may not be as simple as thought (2016, February 19) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2016-02-notions-twinning-metals-simple-thought.html Propagation speed of dislocations and deformation twins during D-ECAP obtained from MD simulations. Credit: arXiv:1510.04404 [cond-mat.mtrl-sci] This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
More information: John L. Hoogland et al. Prairie dogs increase fitness by killing interspecific competitors, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (2016). DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2016.0144AbstractInterspecific competition commonly selects for divergence in ecology, morphology or physiology, but direct observation of interspecific competition under natural conditions is difficult. Herbivorous white-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys leucurus) employ an unusual strategy to reduce interspecific competition: they kill, but do not consume, herbivorous Wyoming ground squirrels (Urocitellus elegans) encountered in the prairie dog territories. Results from a 6-year study in Colorado, USA, revealed that interspecific killing of ground squirrels by prairie dogs was common, involving 47 different killers; 19 prairie dogs were serial killers in the same or consecutive years, and 30% of female prairie dogs killed at least one ground squirrel over their lifetimes. Females that killed ground squirrels had significantly higher annual and lifetime fitness than non-killers, probably because of decreased interspecific competition for vegetation. Our results document the first case of interspecific killing of competing individuals unrelated to predation (IK) among herbivorous mammals in the wild, and show that IK enhances fitness for animals living under natural conditions. (Phys.org)—A pair of researchers, one with the University of Maryland, the other the University of Tulsa, has found that white-tailed prairie dogs living on the North American prairie, sometimes kill ground squirrels that live in the same area. In their paper published in Proceedings of the Royal Society B, John Hoogland and Charles Brown describe their multi-year study of the prairie dogs, their observations of squirrel killing, and why they believe it occurs. Prior to this new effort, there had never been an observation of a mammalian herbivore killing another herbivore without eating it—and it was not a one-off situation. The researcher pair recorded multiple instances of squirrel killing over the course of their study covering the years 2003 to 2012 which consisted of sitting in tree-stands watching the activities of the creatures below. They report that they were astounded to witness a prairie dog killing a squirrel four years into their study and thereafter made it a priority to look out for another such instance.They did not have to wait long, squirrel killing, it appeared was a natural part of the lives of prairie dogs. Over the course of the remainder of their study, they witnessed 101 instances of prairie dogs intentionally killing ground squirrels, and noted the carcasses of another 62 squirrels they believe were the victims of prairie dog attacks. They also identified 47 individual prairie dogs that killed squirrels—11 male and 36 female, and 19 of the animals that killed squirrels multiple times.The researchers suggest that the prairie dogs kill the squirrels because they see them as a competitor for the same resources, not as a threat. Prairie dogs and squirrels eat the same foods, and in many cases squirrels take over abandoned prairie dog tunnels. Taking their study further, they found evidence that showed that mother prairie dogs who killed squirrels tended to have more offspring than did those that did not and that their overall ‘fitness’ levels were much higher than non-killing females.The researchers also note that it is surprising that the killing of squirrels by prairie dogs has gone unnoticed for so long, which suggests that it is a possibility with other mammalian herbivores as well. Multiple mates worth the risk for female prairie dogs © 2016 Phys.org Photo courtesy of U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Journal information: Proceedings of the Royal Society B Citation: Prairie dogs found to kill competing squirrels (2016, March 23) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2016-03-prairie-dogs-squirrels.html Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Stigma can harm health in many ways. It can discourage people from taking part in healthy behaviors like exercise, which improves health regardless of whether it leads to weight loss, and it can erode mental health. One large study found that perceived weight discrimination is associated with a host of psychiatric disorders, including depression and anxiety, and another found that weight discrimination is associated with a shorter life, even after researchers controlled for body mass index in both cases. Even perceiving yourself as overweight when you aren’t is linked to poorer health down the line. If you’re one of the nearly 40 percent of Americans who are obese, you don’t need anyone to explain the associated stigma; you’ve probably experienced it in some form or another — jokes about your weight, teasing, bullying, employment discrimination (which is legal in 49 states), prejudice and unfair treatment. This kind of stigmatization doesn’t just create hurt feelings, it can harm your health. The research suggests that reducing stigma against obesity could give overweight people a health boost — even if they never shed a single pound. And stigma creates a vicious cycle. People who report experiencing weight stigma are more likely to gain weight in the future and attain a BMI categorized as “obese.” Behavior likely contributes to this trend: When people get stressed out, they tend to soothe themselves with comfort food and are more likely to fail at attempts to self-regulate — meaning that, among other things, they are less likely to stick to a healthful diet. But there is also some evidence that physiological factors contribute to weight gain among people who experience stigma. A. Janet Tomiyama, a psychology professor at UCLA, is studying the relationship between weight stigma and cortisol, a hormone that responds strongly to stress. Cortisol signals the body to store more fat, especially in the abdominal area, and it increases appetite and makes the brain’s reward centers more sensitive in response to treats like sugar and fatty foods. And that’s what makes weight stigma doubly pernicious, she said. In addition to the pain and stress it causes, “experiencing it makes the original condition more exacerbated.” Read the whole story: FiveThirtyEight
The tourism ministry’s new film Find What You Seek received the first prize at the 11th Golden City Gate Tourism Media Awards Ceremony held in Berlin Friday to coincide with Indian Tourism Bourse (ITB) Berlin 2013.The Golden City Gate is an international film, print and media contest for the tourism industry. The awards ceremony is held every year at ITB Berlin, the world’s leading travel trade show. The competition provides tourism advertisers an opportunity to participate in the contest for presenting their new creatives. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’All entries are assessed by 45 independent international expert jurors with strong industry background. Tourism Minister K. Chiranjeevi had launched the new campaign, Find What You Seek, as the second phase of Incredible India Campaign at WTM 2012 last November, along with the new domestic campaign Go Beyond.By launching new campaign, the tourism ministry has made a paradigm shift by shifting the focus from destinations and products to consumers (travellers). The new campaign emphasizes that there is something for every traveller in India and every traveller can find what he or she is seeking while travelling in our incredible country. Go Beyond urges travellers to travel beyond the obvious, the known destinations to the lesser known destinations.
Satyarthi was born 60 years back at Vidisha, a district headquarter town about 55 kms from Bhopal. He did his schooling and degree in engineering from the government engineering college at Vidisha but instead of going for a cushy job, he chose the turbulent path of a crusader for child rights. Ironically, his home state is infamous for child trafficking and for children who go missing from their homes, never to return. Madhya Pradesh is only second to Uttar Pradesh is crimes against children. Also Read – Gateway of criminal justiceA recent report on ‘Exploitation of children in Tourism’, based on extensive surveys carried out in two tourist destinations of the state, present a very sordid picture of the state of children in Madhya Pradesh. The first is Khajuraho, where the number of foreign tourist visitors is only second to the Taj Mahal. And second, Ujjain – one of the most sacred Hindu pilgrimage centre of the country. Besides ordinary people, a large number of top politicians, officers, lawyers, judges, film actors and other prominent personalities visit Ujjain regularly to pay homage to Lord Mahakaal. Mahakaal is one of the twelve ‘Jyotirlingas’ of the country and every 12 years, Kumbh (known as Simhastha) fair is held at Ujjain, which draws tens of lakhs of Hindu pilgrims. Also Read – Turning a blind eyeBoth these centres of tourism are also centres of exploitation of children- both boys and girls. The survey says that the children are exploited in temples, hotels and many other places. A large number of children are made to beg to take advantage of the gullible pilgrims, who want to earn some ‘Punya’. And in many cases, this is done with the approval of their parents. A group of 8 child beggars of Ujjain told the researchers that they come from extremely poor families and earn Rs 100 to Rs 200 per day as alms from the pilgrims. The money is used by the children and their parents for buying intoxicants. The child beggars are put on work when they are as young as 3-4 years old. The most distressing aspect of the issue is that almost all children working in hotels or indulging in begging are addicted to intoxicants of one kind or the other. They mainly used whitener and nail polish removers for the purpose. They work the whole day and in the evening, buy Whitener to get intoxicated. Though the district administration has banned the sale of Whitener in Ujjain but it is available easily. Besides begging, small kids also work in hotels in Ujjain. Their working hours are not fixed. On occasions, they have to work from morning through the night. During the festive season, they beg during the day and work in hotels in the night as pilgrims keep on coming to and going from the city the whole night. In Ujjain, many small boys and girls have also been caught in the whirlpool of sexual exploitation. Besides local girls, the pimps also bring girls from other parts of the state to Ujjain. Earlier, there used to exist a red light area called ‘Pinjarwadi’ in Ujjain but now prostitution and sexual exploitation is rampant in many other parts of the city. The sex workers of Pinjarwadi have been shifted to other locations in the city. It is said that many houses in the city have become known centres of prostitution. Women and especially minor girls sing and dance before the ‘customers’ to entertain them. This continues till the customers keep on shelling out money. In the end, bidding is held and the highest bidder gets a chance to have intercourse with the girl. Autorickshaw drivers take tourists to such houses and they get a hefty commission in return. Tourists take snaps of minor girls. They are taken to their homes to shoot their nude pictures and their MMS are made. Children selling sexual literature (like Kaam Sutra) are a common sight. What is worse is that all this is happening with full knowledge and tacit consent of the administration and the police. The administration does nothing to put a stop to such nefarious activities. Childline is functional in Ujjain for the last seven years. The cases which come before it are mainly related to making children beg in the vicinity of temples, molestation of children by family members or by neighbours, child labour, child trafficking, children going missing and children getting addicted to intoxicants. The Childline is not doing anything to extricate the children trapped in sex rackets.The condition is worse in Khajuraho. The survey revealed that sexual exploitation of children and child labour are very common in and around Khajuraho. Hotels of all types are centres of sexual exploitation of children and they include starred hotels. The boys subjected to sexual exploitation are locally called ‘Lapka’. Besides Indian, a large number of foreign tourists are also involved in this horrific exploitation of children. Many foreign tourists stay with the families of such children and take the children out for sexually exploiting them. The boys take the tourists for sightseeing on bikes. ‘They give us everything and in return we give them sex’, was the rather shocking admission of a young boy. Some boys do not see this as exploitation at all. They consider it a business. And their family members concur. In many cases, some foreign tourists make repeated trips to Khajuraho and stay with the same families. The tour operators also bring boys from other states for the purpose. In Khajuraho, sexual exploitation of boys is a big business, involving thousands of persons. A large number of young boys also develop sexual relations with foreigner women tourists. IPA
Redefining the idea of home when all is lost and when borders are etched between lands and people, this is what Sheba Remy Kharbanda and William Charles Moss’s documentary is all about. To be screened from 14 to 21 November in India Habitat Centre, Five Rivers: A Portrait of Partition is a documentary in Cyclorama featuring a video art installation by these multi-disciplinary artists. The documentary illustrates the intimate complexities of ‘home’. Staged inside a traditional Indian wedding tent, this cycloramic screening marries culture-bridging conventions of storytelling to the stimulation of a sculptural installation. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Projected footage occupies conducting a blend of five synchronized films that craft the narrative of Amrik Singh, a Punjabi/Afghani Sikh who at age nine left his childhood home to migrate alongside millions across the Indian Subcontinent in the months preceding the Partition of India in 1947. Singh’s introspective recollections carry an invitation for participants to trace his turbulent journey to redefine home across the sudden and stark borders created by the establishment of Pakistan and India as independent states. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixClearly visible on the white textile of the tent from both inside and outside the structure, these interviews, landscapes, and historical documentation are fostered by a pervasive soundtrack of contemporary punjabi and urdu poetry, testimony, and speeches that imbibe the space with a strong sense of the memory.The artiste, Sheba Remy Kharbanda is a metaphysician, filmmaker and storyteller born in London to immigrants from the Punjabi. In 2005, she launched the Foreign Land Project, a documentary film and online oral history archive that chronicles the stories of elder women from the Punjab, who, after partition of India, left for England in search of work and a new home. In May, 2014, her essay entitled, A Lesson in Love was published in the anthology, Her Name Is Kaur: Sikh American Women Write about Love, Courage, and Faith. With Five Rivers, Kharbanda seeks to weave threads through questions of identity, displacement and memory – questions she continues to grapple with and which she feels are her ancestral inheritance.William Charles Moss is a photographer and cinematographer who began in the feature film industry almost twenty years ago, before discovering the world of documentary film, which has since become his passion. Together with Kharbanda, he runs Callejero Films, a Brooklyn-based video production company. When: 14-21? NovWhere: India Habitat Centre Timing: 5.30 pm onwards
Kolkata: Displeased with the State Election Commission’s (SEC) decision to cancel its own order to extend the nomination process by a day, the Calcutta High Court today stayed the ongoing panchayat election process in West Bengal till further orders. Rejecting the SEC’s contention that the writ petition of the BJP was not maintainable, the court held that the SEC is endowed with powers relating to holding of elections, but in case of any digression, it needs to be corrected by the court of law. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flightsJustice Subrata Talukdar stayed till further orders the ongoing panchayat election process in West Bengal.Talukdar also sought from the SEC by Monday a comprehensive status report on the poll process, detailing the number of nominations filed and the percentage of those rejected, among other information.The court said it would hear on April 16 the pleas challenging the SEC’s decision to withdraw its April 9 notification, which had extended the date for filing nominations by a day. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killedThe BJP had challenged the cancellation of the notification dated April 9 by the commission vide its order dated April 10, withdrawing the one-day extension granted to the candidates to file their nomination papers.The deadline to file nominations had expired at 3 pm on April 9.Justice Talukdar observed that the commission had recognised the grievances expressed by different political parties as well as individuals by extending the date.”However, the order was abruptly withdrawn,” he said. Justice Talukdar had on April 10 stayed the SEC order, permitting the commission to take steps in accordance with the law by treating the operation of its order dated April 10 to have been kept in abeyance.Referring to the Supreme Court order with regard to a petition by the West Bengal unit of the BJP challenging the SEC’s decision to recall the extension order, Justice Talukdar said that the operative part of the apex court order is crucially connected to the cancellation of the notification.The high court also said that the SEC should have informed it today that it has ensured a level playing field for all players.Justice Talukdar also expressed his displeasure at the conduct of the BJP representative, Pratap Banerjee, who had moved the petition on behalf of the party in view of an ongoing cease work by lawyers, for not disclosing that a similar petition had been moved by the party before the Supreme Court also.Justice Talukdar observed that this court must hold a very dim view of the conduct of the BJP representative appearing in person.”However, in view of public interest involved, this court is not vacating its directions to the SEC,” the judge said.Likening its conduct to forum hopping, Justice Talukdar imposed a cost of Rs 5 lakh on the BJP which would have to be deposited with the registrar general of the high court.Representing the Trinamool Congress, its vice-president Kalyan Banerjee earlier prayed for vacating the order on the SEC, alleging that the petitioner had suppressed that it had moved both the high court and the apex court with similar petitions.
Researchers have found that those who suffer defeat or are in negative emotional states tend to crave sweets more than those in a positive frame of mind.The research published in the journal Appetite focused on how a person’s emotional state—particularly in the competitive world of sports — affects the perception of taste.“We found how emotions arising from the outcome of college hockey games influenced the perception of sweet, salty, bitter, sour and umami (savory) taste. In addition to hedonic responses—or how much they liked or disliked the foods,” said Robin Dando, assistant professor of food science at Cornell University in the US. Emotions experienced in everyday life can alter the hedonic experience of