Opinions expressed by Entrepreneur contributors are their own. Facebook 2019 Entrepreneur 360 List Next Article Guest Writer April 3, 2018 Image credit: NurPhoto | Getty Images Add to Queue Zuckerberg is renowned for inventing Facebook, but his reputation for leading it is in tatters. Samuel Edwards Mark Zuckerberg Gives a Lesson in How Not to Lead in a Crisis 5 min read Digital Marketing Strategist –shares Apply Now » The only list that measures privately-held company performance across multiple dimensions—not just revenue. For a while, Facebook could do no wrong. All you have to do is take a quick look at the Facebook stock chart and you’ll see a company that has watched its value rise nearly 500 percent over the past five years alone. But that same chart will also show you a hefty decline since the middle of March. In all honesty, CEO Mark Zuckerberg is to blame. Cambridge Analytica exposed Zuckerberg’s greatest flaw.It would be safe to say that public trust in Facebook is at an all-time low. If the past year has taught us anything, it’s that trust must be continually cultivated, no matter how much of it you think your organization has.Perhaps it was an inflated sense of public trust, an attitude of invincibility, or an unwillingness to own up to responsibility that led Zuckerberg, COO Sheryl Sandberg and other Facebook executives to take a painfully long time to formulate a response to the news that data firm Cambridge Analytica gained access to millions of its users’ data three years ago. However, at this point, does it really matter? The problem is that Facebook is developing a poor track record of managing crises.Now that people know just how much of their personal data Facebook has, the last thing the company can afford is for people to view the social network giant as being irresponsible. Unfortunately, Zuckerberg’s response in the wake of this crisis has done little to instill confidence and accountability.Zuckerberg and the company must decide whether they’re going to embrace the responsibility they have. They’ve walked into this mess by amassing mounds of personal information on users. If they don’t want to deal with the responsibility that comes with it, they need to step out of the way. That’s the blunt truth.To Zuckerberg’s credit, he finally spoke up. “I’ve been working to understand exactly what happened and how to make sure this doesn’t happen again,” Zuckerberg wrote in a post on his profile. “I promise you we’ll work through this and build a better service over the long term.”Zuckerberg’s response was, arguably, another poor PR move. He said no more than you’d expect but far later than he should have. Plus, it was sterile and vague. He left many wondering if Facebook is really doing enough to protect user data.Related: Read Mark Zuckerberg’s Full Statement on Facebook’s Data ScandalTakeaways from Facebook’s PR debacle.Taking your personal feelings and data out of the equation, the Facebook-Cambridge Analytica crisis has been a textbook PR case study in what not to do. As we look at it in more detail, here are a few of the takeaways and lessons business owners and entrepreneurs should spend some time studying.1. Don’t delay.The issue most people had with Facebook’s response was that it took so long for one to be formulated and publicized. Since the company obviously was aware of what was going on, it was unacceptable and disingenuous to keep people waiting for days.One of the first rules of good crisis management is to get ahead of the problem. The sooner you can address the issue, the better you can shape the public narrative and response.Related: Read the Controversial 2016 Facebook Memo in Which an Exec Argues for ‘Growth at Any Cost’2. Apologize.Zuckerberg’s eventual response was 936 words long. While it contained a bunch of corporate language and legal jargon, do you know what word was completely missing? The simple word sorry.It’s not always necessary to spend a bunch of time apologizing in the wake of a crisis, but you do need to say sorry — even if the incident was largely outside your control. It humanizes your brand and makes you look like you care.Related: Mark Zuckerberg Doesn’t Seem Very Sorry or Very Forgiven3. Act.The final lesson is to take action. If you say you’re going to do something, make sure your actions follow your speech. While it remains to be seen if Facebook will maintain a stiffer posture on responsibly stewarding user data, there has been some initial activity.Zuckerberg recently posted to his Facebook page that new privacy and security settings have been placed at the top of everyone’s Newsfeed so that users can easily disable apps they are no longer using and tweak their security settings to fit their preferences. If nothing else, it’s a start.Related: Facebook’s Data Scandal and Europe’s New Data Privacy Rule Have Massive Implications for U.S. EntrepreneursFor Zuckerberg and Facebook, the good news is there will be plenty of opportunities to rebuild trust with users. However, if they’re going to restore that trust, they must learn from their mistakes and make it a point to improve their crisis management efforts and address the PR shortcomings they’ve repeatedly been characterized by. As an outsider looking in, you can also learn from their mistakes and prepare your own business for handling crises with more grace.
Richard Branson Says the 9-5 Workday Grind Is About to Die. Here’s Why. –shares 2 min read Learn how to successfully navigate family business dynamics and build businesses that excel. Nina Zipkin Register Now » Image credit: Axelle/Bauer-Griffin | Getty Images December 19, 2018 Richard Branson believes the 5-day, 9-5 work week will eventually become extinct.In a recent blog post, the Virgin Group founder cited a familiar argument, that technological innovation — especially advances that do away with the need for people to operate everything from factory machinery to cars and planes — will change work as we know it.But he writes that this doesn’t necessarily have to be something to fear. Instead it can be an opportunity to shake things up for the better, and to accelerate the creation of smarter working practices for everyone.Related: Advice for Elon Musk From Richard Branson, Arianna Huffington and Mark Cuban“One useful idea is for governments to provide tuition for workers to gain the technical skills needed in the new marketplace, in exchange for public service. We need more creative solutions too,” Branson explains.Two other ideas that Branson supports are the proliferation of three and four day weekends and job sharing. These would prioritize a work infrastructure that allows employees to have full lives outside of an office, to spend time with friends and family, to devote time to the things they are passionate about, and to focus on being physically and mentally healthy.Branson explained how flexible work is a big part of how he leads Virgin Group. “If you trust people and treat them as adults, they will repay you by working effectively and efficiently,” he wrote. “Choice can empower people to make good decisions and feel positive about their workplace, helping to keep great employees and attract new talent. If we all work smarter, we won’t have to work longer.” Work-Life Balance Add to Queue The Virgin Group founder urges businesses to implement flexible work practices to get the most from their employees. Staff Writer. Covers leadership, media, technology and culture. Free Webinar | July 31: Secrets to Running a Successful Family Business Next Article Entrepreneur Staff
Watson Has Helped Regions Answer over 1.5 Million Customer Calls and 1.4 Million Banker QuestionsIBM announced that Regions Bank has selected the company’s artificial intelligence (AI) technology to help improve customer service and assist bankers in everyday work.In today’s digital world, the customer experience remains paramount. A staggering 62% of banking customers will consider switching to a competitor after only 1-2 bad experiences, and more than 90% of customers share details about bad experiences with others. Customer service professionals know that most questions don’t always require long troubleshooting. Agents spend their time answering similar questions, rather than focusing on more complex, exceptional cases.To ensure a positive customer experience, Regions Bank is using Watson in its contact centers to help both customers and employees. The company’s Banker Assist harnesses Watson Assistant to provide bankers with guidance on customer inquiries, enabling them to resolve customer service needs faster. With Banker Assist, employees can use AI-powered search when faced with a question to provide quicker call resolutions and more consistent answers. Already, 700 professionals at the bank rely on Watson to complete customer problem resolution.Marketing Technology News: Pagely Announces 2nd Annual Scholarship for Underrepresented Students in TechAdditionally, when customers call Regions, many interact directly with Watson Assistant receiving rapid and consistent answers to their questions. They can get help on a variety of issues including updating personal information and navigating the Regions Bank website. Letting Watson take on the more routine questions allows service representatives to tackle the more intellectually challenging questions, spend more time engaging with customers and be better informed to resolve issues. Over time, Watson will be trained on other tasks, including analyzing customers’ tone to help determine when a customer should be transferred to a live agent.Our Resources: How Connected Workplaces Can Help You Unlock Higher Levels of Productivity“At Regions we are investing in technology to make banking easier for our customers and to recruit and retain talented associates,” said Chris Brasher, head of Bank Operations for Regions Bank. “IBM Watson’s automated intelligence is an important tool that allows us to operate more effectively by understanding customer needs. We are identifying additional use cases for this technology as part of our focus on continuous improvement across the company.”Marketing Technology News: New Research from Fresh Relevance Highlights Impact and Adoption of Influencer Marketing Is Overestimated“The use of artificial intelligence among banks continues to rise, helping financial institutions make better use of vast amounts of data, analyze patterns, evaluate risks and improve customer service,” said Beth Smith, General Manager, IBM Watson AI. “Regions Bank is focused on improving customer and associate relationships and Watson will help them continue to provide a great customer experience.”Marketing Technology News: PX Open Marketplace Surpasses 500 Publishers in its Exchange Regions Bank Taps IBM’s AI to Power Next Generation Customer Service PRNewswireApril 26, 2019, 5:44 pmJuly 16, 2019 Artificial Intelligencecustomer experienceIBMMarketing TechnologyNewsRegions Bank Previous ArticleLINK Mobility to Integrate With Oracle ResponsysNext ArticleNew Yotpo and Klaviyo Integration Propels Email Innovation and Revenues for D2C Brands
Bidalgo Launches Industry First Asset-Level Data for Google App Campaigns to Give App Marketers Greater Accuracy and Control MTS Staff WriterApril 26, 2019, 7:32 pmApril 26, 2019 With Post-Attribution, Asset-Level Heuristic Data, Bidalgo Automation Brings a 30% Lift in ROASBidalgo, a leading provider of ad automation software and services for app marketers, announced the launch of Asset Heuristic Data (Asset HD) for Google App Campaigns, providing app marketers with post-attribution, asset-level data and enhanced AI-powered automation for install campaigns on Google properties. Now, for the first time since Google transitioned all app install campaigns to Google App Campaigns (previously “Google UAC”) in October of 2017, app marketers have access to accurate reporting data down to the asset level, so that they can analyze creative performance and optimize campaigns accordingly. In early tests, marketing partners using Bidalgo’s Automation for Google App Campaigns have increased their Return On Ad Spend (ROAS) 30 percent.Google App Campaigns run optimized install campaigns on inventory across all relevant Google properties, including Google Play, Search, YouTube and the Google Display Network. Currently, Measurement Partners don’t have transparency to asset-level data, leading to a lack of accurate, post-attribution data throughout the industry. Google provides marketers with approximated reporting on basic, pre-attribution data such as impressions, clicks and conversions, but the numbers are often difficult to interpret and take action on. Bidalgo’s algorithm for Asset HD relies on user funnel, pre-attribution data and other inputs to provide highly accurate information about the post-install performance of each asset as it affects revenue, payers, transactions and more.Marketing Technology News: Data Privacy: Balancing Personalization and Security in the Age of Transparency“Google App Campaigns are an incredibly powerful yet simple way for app marketers to drive high-quality installs,” said Niv Yemini, CTO & co-founder of Bidalgo. “But at the same time, it has taken away some of the control from app marketers who are used to having more dials and levers they can adjust in order to optimize their campaigns. With our solutions for Google App Campaigns, we are putting the power back into those marketers’ hands by providing greater transparency into asset performance and enabling them to better manage and optimize their campaigns.”Marketing Technology News: MGH Survey Finds Nearly Half of US Diners Have Tried a New Restaurant Because of its Social Media PostsBidalgo improves Google App Campaigns by providing:Asset HD – While Google only provides pre-attribution, campaign-level data for metrics such as impressions, clicks and installs, Bidalgo provides Asset Heuristic Data (Asset HD). Bidalgo uses a data science-driven heuristic technique to calculate asset-level performance, including Return On Ad Spend (ROAS), based on post-install attribution data from leading mobile measurement partners. This enables the breakdown of performance for assets including text, video, display image and HTML5 playable units. Until now, these assets were only looked at collectively.AI-Powered Automation – Bidalgo’s proprietary AI algorithms create a campaign using smart asset selection by looking at the assets’ historical data. Once the best assets have been determined, it analyzes their performance and adds or removes as needed. Marketers can now build campaigns based on the best performing assets and optimize campaigns automatically using that data.Marketing Technology News: Grant Thornton’s Tax practice embraces Microsoft Power BI AI-powered automationapp marketersAsset Heuristic DataBidalgoGoogle App CampaignsMarketing TechnologyNews Previous ArticleBlueshift Appoints LendingTree’s Former VP of Marketing, Josh Francia, as Chief Growth OfficerNext ArticleSalesLoft Scoops $70 Million Series D to Fuel Growth in Sales Technology
The agreement between the two companies will allow Telefónica to reinforce its multicloud offering to companies with the inclusion in its catalogue of Google Cloud Platform, G Suite, Google Cloud Interconnect and Chrome EnterpriseTelefónica Business Solutions, a leading provider of a broad portfolio of integrated communication solutions and digital services for the B2B market, has announced a strategic agreement with Google. This new agreement will help companies accelerate their transition to the cloud, reduce costs and advance the digital transformation of their businesses.Telefónica’s global multicloud value proposition already includes the most relevant public clouds in the market, and will be further strengthened by the addition of Google’s public cloud service. This new comprehensive service set aims to deliver customers an integrated solution which, when combined with security and communications, allows companies to enjoy a differential end-to-end experience. In addition, Telefónica’s multicloud portal enables companies to simplify the complexity of their hybrid cloud environments including public, local and private clouds, unifying them into a single, simple, secure and flexible management environment.Marketing Technology News: Oracle Collaborates with Top Oracle PartnerNetwork Platinum Level Members to Rethink Customer Data Platform MarketThe agreement announced today is global and builds on the local agreement signed by Telefónica Spain last year with Google for the marketing of G Suite. Google’s suite of collaboration and productivity applications allows companies to integrate in the cloud everything they need to create a virtual workplace that, when combined with Telefónica’s professional communications and telephony services, allows users to work securely from anywhere.The global framework of the agreement means, that going forward, in addition to G Suite, Telefónica will promote in all countries where it operates Google Cloud Platform public cloud services, the infrastructure interconnection solution Google Cloud Interconnect and Chrome Enterprise which includes the most relevant business tools companies require to work easily in the cloud.Marketing Technology News: Databricks Accelerates APJ Expansion Following $250 Million Funding RoundHugo de los Santos, Global B2B Director of Products and Services at Telefónica commented: “Our customers demand a complete multicloud offering that allows them to use the most appropriate products and services from each cloud. Those offered by Google Cloud also perfectly complement our cloud product portfolio and will help us improve our value proposition to companies by distinguishing themselves through their Artificial Intelligence and machine learning capabilities.”Sebastian Marotte, VP EMEA Partners & Alliances, Google Cloud, said: “The alliance between Google Cloud and Telefónica Business Solutions provides our clients with a simple, secure and open approach, allowing them to take advantage of the benefits of the cloud in the best way that meets their business needs.”Marketing Technology News: Blis Expands Into the Netherlands With First Hire B2B markegoogleHugo de los SantosMarketing TechnologyNewsSebastian MarotteTelefónica Business Solutions Previous ArticleBuddig Launches National Advertising Campaign “Lunchtime Anytime”Next ArticleSitecore Expands Functionality for Salesforce Marketing Cloud, on Salesforce AppExchange with Better Personalization and Segmentation Telefónica to Offer Google Cloud Solutions to Companies Around the World MTS Staff WriterJune 18, 2019, 9:45 pmJune 18, 2019
There were 8,048 Model 3 vehicles and 3,776 Model S and X vehicles were in transit to customers at the end of Q3, and will be delivered in early Q4. Tesla publicly revealed a target goal of 100,000 Model S and X deliveries in 2018 and with the current onslaught in both production and deliveries, it seems the carmaker is well on their way to smashing it. The Model 3 is selling like crazy and more orders & deliveries are being recorded daily. With more and more people opting in for an electric vehicle, the sales volume will grow substantially and currently, it seems that nobody is ripe to catching Tesla. At least not in the foreseeable future, that is. Tesla Releases Q3 Vehicle Safety Report: Autopilot Reduces Crash Risk Watch Tesla Model 3 Performance Set New 0 To 60 MPH Record Source: Electric Vehicle News Around 85% of the number is estimated to be dual motor vehiclesWhile the focus of the public was on the 2018 Paris Motor Show where several high-profile reveals from the legacy carmakers are happening, Tesla seems to be quietly grinding away at production woes. Coming into the 4Q, the U.S.-based carmaker is putting an immense amount of vehicles out on the road. The magnitude at which Tesla is producing and delivering cars is putting some fear into the hearts of executives dealing with the onslaught from California.More from Tesla New Images of Next-Gen Tesla Roadster Surface Author Liberty Access TechnologiesPosted on October 5, 2018Categories Electric Vehicle News Tesla sold a whopping 61,875 cars (Model 3 and Model S) in the last quarter. According to data, they’ve ramped production to 5,300 vehicles per week and overall, produced over 80,000 vehicles in the period.Q3 deliveries totaled 83,500 vehicles: 55,840 Model 3, 14,470 Model S, and 13,190 Model X. To put this in perspective, in just Q3, we delivered more than 80% of the vehicles that we delivered in all of 2017, and we delivered about twice as many Model 3s as we did in all previous quarters combined.And now, seemingly more Model 3’s are coming. Recently, the carmaker registered a batch of 4,609 Model 3 VIN’s – out of which, approximately 85% are estimated to be the dual motor vehicles. The information was revealed by Model3Vins, a watchdog service dedicated to keeping track of new Tesla Model 3 VIN registrations. This marks yet another large batch of VINs registered, providing ample fuel to the rumor fire that the company received new battery equipment from Germany, helping them produce even more vehicles in a single timeframe.#Tesla registered 4,609 new #Model3 VINs. ~85% estimated to be dual motor. Highest VIN is 122517. https://t.co/TBGgTxH3DS— Model 3 VINs (@Model3VINs) October 3, 2018
Reviewed by Alina Shrourou, B.Sc. (Editor)Oct 29 2018Neuroene Therapeutics, a start-up company founded by mitochondrial biologist Sherine S. L. Chan, Ph.D. and medicinal chemist C. James Chou, Ph.D. of the Medical University of South Carolina, has received a $1.5 million NIH Phase II Small Business Innovation Research grant to optimize vitamin K analogues that could improve seizure control in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. Richard Himes, Ph.D., a chemist at the College of Charleston, serves as the company’s Chief Scientific Officer.Of the 3.4 million Americans estimated to have epilepsy, one third do not receive adequate seizure control with current medications, either because the drugs do not work for them or because they cannot tolerate the drug’s side effects.The SBIR grant will enable Neuroene Therapeutics to test the efficacy and safety of its lead compounds, which are analogues of a naturally occurring form of vitamin K that is essential for mitochondrial and neuronal health.”Mitochondria are the powerhouses of the cell, and the brain needs a lot of energy for its function. A particular form of vitamin K protects the integrity of the mitochondria and helps them produce enough energy for brain cells,” explained Chan.The form of vitamin K needed by the brain is not the same as the vitamin K we get from foods in our diet. The vitamin K we eat must first be processed by intestinal bacteria before transport to the brain, and then within neurons must be converted into the specific form of Vitamin K that is needed for mitochondrial and neuronal health.Because the compound developed by Neuroene Therapeutics mimics this specific form of Vitamin K that the neuron needs (not the ingested form) and because it travels directly to the brain, it bypasses the need for transport systems.”Unlike other vitamin K analogues, which require additional processing before they are in a usable form, our compounds are a direct substitute for the active form and go directly to the brain where they are needed,” said Chou.Related StoriesResearchers discover biochemical agent responsible for blood pressure drop in sepsisCompound derived from broccoli sprouts may restore brain chemistry imbalance related to schizophreniaCopper compound with potential as therapy for ALS shows further promiseEarly testing of these vitamin K analogues by the MUSC investigators with pilot funding from the South Carolina Clinical and Translational Research Institute, a Clinical and Translational Science Awards hub funded by the National Institutes of Health, showed significantly reduced seizure activity with little toxicity in a zebrafish model. Testing in mouse seizure models at the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Anticonvulsant Screening Program confirmed those findings.With assistance from the MUSC Foundation for Research Development, Chan and Chou established Neuroene Therapeutics in 2015 and received a patent on their lead compounds earlier this year.The current SBIR award will enable additional testing of the compounds’ efficacy and safety at the University of Utah’s Anticonvulsant Drug Development Program, directed by Karen Wilcox, Ph.D., which has robust rodent models of drug-resistant epilepsy. By the end of the two years of SBIR funding, Neuroene Therapeutics will have identified the lead compound to take forward into clinical trial.Although Neuroene Therapeutics is focused currently on developing its lead compound for drug-resistant epilepsy, Chan and Chou are also studying whether vitamin K analogues could improve outcomes in other difficult-to-treat neurological diseases. They already have some promising preclinical data in Parkinson’s disease and mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome. In addition, they speculate that the compounds could also be relevant to Alzheimer’s disease.Apolipoprotein E4, one of the strongest genetic risk markers for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease, has a role to play in vitamin K transport. It is possible, then, that mitochondrial dysfunction due to insufficient transport of vitamin K could be implicated in Alzheimer’s and, if so, these brain-penetrating vitamin K analogues could bypass the transport process, thus improving mitochondrial health and disease outcome. Source:http://www.musc.edu
Researchers at TU Graz present tattoo electrodes from the printer, which are particularly attractive for long-term medical diagnostics. Credit: Lunghammer – TU Graz Provided by Graz University of Technology Explore further Graphene electronic tattoos can be applied to the skin with water In the case of diagnostic methods such as electrocardiogram (ECG) and electromyography (EMG), gel electrodes are the preferred method of transmitting electric impulses from the heart or muscle. In clinical practice the frequently stiff and cumbersome electrodes noticeably restrict the mobility of patients and are not very comfortable. Because the gel on the electrodes dries out after a short time, the possibilities of taking measurements over a longer period using this kind of electrode are limited.Together with researchers from Instituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT) Pontedera, Università degli Studi in Milan and Scuola Superiore Sant’ Anna in Pisa, Francesco Greco from the Institute of Solid State Physics at TU Graz in Austria presents a novel method in Advanced Science which raises the transmission of electrical impulses from human to machine to the next level using printed tattoo electrodes.Printed tattoo electrodes for long-term diagnosticsIn the presented method, conducting polymers are printed on commercial temporary tattoo paper, thus producing single or multiple electrode arrangements. The external connections necessary for transmitting the signals are integrated directly in the tattoo. The tattoo electrodes are then applied to the skin like temporary transfer pictures and can hardly be felt by the wearer. Due to their extreme thinness of under one micrometre, the electrodes can be adapted perfectly to the uneven human skin, and can even be applied to parts of the body where traditional electrodes are not suitable, for instance the face. Francesco Greco, materials scientist at the Institute of Solid State Physics of TU Graz explains: “With this method we have managed to take a big step forward in further developing epidermal electronics. We are on a direct road to making an extremely economical and simple as well as versatile applicable system which has enormous market potential.” There is already concrete interest from international biomedical companies in the shared development of marketable products, Greco reports.Personalising epidermal electronicsAnother feature of the printer-created tattoo electrodes is that even a perforation of the tattoo, for instance through the growth of a hair, does not impair the conductivity of the electrode and the signal transmission. This is particularly relevant in the case of long-term applications because hair growth leads to inaccuracies in the results using traditional measuring methods. Flawless transmissions of up to three days were trialled in the tests of the Italian Austrian research group. This, explains Greco, facilitates the measurement of electrophysiological signals of patients and athletes over a longer period without restricting or influencing their normal activities. Electrodes of different sizes and arrangements could also be produced using the printer and individually adapted to the respective body part on which the measurement is to be carried out.Greco describes the ultimate goal of the research as follows: “We are working on the development of wireless tattoo electrodes with integrated transistor which would make it possible to both send and receive signals. Not only could we measure impulses using this method, but we could also stimulate body regions in a targeted way.”Francesco Greco from TU Graz’s Institute of Solid State Physics is working together on this research topic with the team of Paolo Cavallari, professor of human physiology at Università degli Studi in Milan, and Professor Christian Cipriani, head of the Biorobotics Institute of Scuola Superiore Sant’ Anna in Pisa, and also with his former research group at Instituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT) Pontedera. More information: Laura M. Ferrari et al. Ultraconformable Temporary Tattoo Electrodes for Electrophysiology, Advanced Science (2018). DOI: 10.1002/advs.201700771 Electrodes for longterm monitoring of electrical impulses of heart or muscles in the form of temporary tattoos produced using an ink-jet printer. An international research group involving TU Graz, Austria, presents this novel method in Advanced Science. Citation: Tattoo electrodes from an ink-jet printer for long-term medical diagnostics (2018, March 27) retrieved 18 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-03-tattoo-electrodes-ink-jet-printer-long-term.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Paul E. Smith, Lecture Demonstrator for Chemistry, Purdue University In the earliest days of the United States, John Adams wrote to his wife Abigail about the celebration of independence, “It ought to be solemnized with Pomp and Parade, with Shews, Games, Sports, Guns, Bells, Bonfires and Illuminations from one End of this Continent to the other from this Time forward forever more.” “Bonfires and illuminations” refer directly to what we know as pyrotechnics and firework displays. I’m a chemist and also president of Pyrotechnics Guild International, an organization that promotes the safe use of fireworks and using them here in the U.S. to celebrate Independence Day and other festivals throughout the year. As a chemist, and someone who leads demonstrations for chemistry students, I consider fireworks a great example of combustion reactions that produce colored fire. But the invention of colored fireworks is relatively recent and not all colors are easy to produce. Early history of fireworks Firecrackers were first invented serendipitously by the Chinese in 200 B.C. But it wasn’t until one thousand years later that Chinese alchemists developed fireworks in 800 A.D. These early fireworks were mostly bright and noisy concoctions designed to scare evil spirits — not the colorful, controlled explosions we see today. Fast forward another millennium and the Italians figured out how to add color by introducing various elements to the flammable mix. Adding the element strontium to a color pyrotechnic mix produces a red flame; copper, blue; barium, green; and sodium for yellow.Headbutting Tiny Worms Are Really, Really LoudThis rapid strike produces a loud ‘pop’ comparable to those made by snapping shrimps, one of the most intense biological sounds measured at sea.Your Recommended PlaylistVolume 0%Press shift question mark to access a list of keyboard shortcutsKeyboard Shortcutsplay/pauseincrease volumedecrease volumeseek forwardsseek backwardstoggle captionstoggle fullscreenmute/unmuteseek to %SPACE↑↓→←cfm0-9接下来播放Why Is It ‘Snowing’ Salt in the Dead Sea?01:53 facebook twitter 发邮件 reddit 链接https://www.livescience.com/65860-why-blue-fireworks-are-rare.html?jwsource=cl已复制直播00:0000:3500:35 Too much or too little of the chemicals make significant changes in the temperature and thus the wavelength of color seen. The proper mixture of chemicals when ignited produce enough energy to excite electrons to give off different colors of light. Even though the chemistry of these colors isn’t new, each generation seems to get excited by the colors splashed across the sky. We now have a wide range of flame colors: red, green, blue, yellow, purple, and variations of these. Each color works the same way. As different elements ignite they release different wavelengths of light which translate as different colors. Making that perfect blue firework Not all colors of fireworks are equally easy to create. I believe several of my colleagues in pyrotechnic research and development would agree with me that blue is the most difficult color to produce. That is because the evening sky is a shade of blue, which means that most blues do not show up as well. If you try to make the blue brighter to contrast with the background it can look washed out. The right balance of copper and other chemicals in the flame or combustion reaction produce the best blue color flame in a firework. I have taken this into account when trying to create the best blue flame color, which I call pill box blue. It is just bright enough to stand out against the night sky but still a rich blue. I have over 20 blue pyrotechnic formulas and I have found one that comes very close to this elusive hue. Another difficulty in creating an intense blue color is that the chemistry is not simple. It requires a combination of several chemicals and the element copper. When copper ignites, the electrons surrounding the copper atoms get excited and energized in the flame. When the electrons release this energy, it appears to observers as blue light. Each color works the same way. As different elements ignite they release different wavelengths of light which translate as different colors. So when you see blue-colored dots of light creating a pattern in the night sky, you really are seeing excited electrons releasing energy as blue light. [Expertise in your inbox. Sign up for The Conversation’s newsletter and get a digest of academic takes on today’s news, every day.] This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.by Taboolaby TaboolaSponsored LinksSponsored LinksPromoted LinksPromoted LinksYou May LikeVikings: Free Online GamePlay this for 1 minute and see why everyone is addictedVikings: Free Online GameUndoKelley Blue Book2019 Lexus Vehicles Worth Buying for Their Resale ValueKelley Blue BookUndoAncestryThe Story Behind Your Last Name Will Surprise YouAncestryUndoTruthFinder People Search SubscriptionOne Thing All Liars Have in Common, Brace YourselfTruthFinder People Search SubscriptionUndoClassmatesSearch For Any High School Yearbook, It’s Free.ClassmatesUndoInsured NationThis Rule in Rowland Heights, California Leaves Drivers ConfusedInsured NationUndo